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Python Virtual Environments

What and Why

A Virtual Environment is a tool to keep the dependencies required by different projects in separate places, by creating virtual Python environments for them. It solves the “Project X depends on version 1.x but, Project Y needs 4.x” dilemma, and keeps your global site-packages directory clean and manageable. For example, you can work on a project which requires Django 1.3 while also maintaining a project which requires Django 1.0. 1)

Using Virtual Environments

The python virtual environment package is installed by default on most CS machines. To make sure you can do the following:

user@computer:~/projects$ which virtualenv
/usr/bin/virtualenv

Creating a new project

user@hester:~/projects$ virtualenv --no-site-packages exampleproject
The --no-site-packages flag is deprecated; it is now the default behavior.
New python executable in exampleproject/bin/python
Installing
distribute................................................................................done.
Installing pip...............done.
user@computer:~/projects$ ls -l exampleproject/
total 4
drwxrwxr-x 2 user group 4096 Nov 25 10:16 bin
drwxrwxr-x 2 user group   30 Nov 25 10:16 include
drwxrwxr-x 3 user group   30 Nov 25 10:16 lib
drwxrwxr-x 2 user group   56 Nov 25 10:16 local
user@computer:~/projects$ cd exampleproject/

Activate

Now you need to activate your virtual environment. This will setup some path variables to make the environments bin and lib directory to be the default.

user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ source bin/activate
(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ 

Installing Modules

After activating the virtual environment you will notice that your prompt changed a little. This is not the only thing that has changed. Your $PATH and default python have changed as well (just checkout the bin/activate script to see what else it does).

Notice that the 'bin' directory in your virtual environment has been prepended to $PATH and the python and pip executables are inside the bin directory.

(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ echo $PATH
/home/user/projects/exampleproject/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games
(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ which python
/home/user/projects/exampleproject/bin/python
(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ which pip
/home/user/projects/exampleproject/bin/pip

So to actually install your own python modules you can use 'pip' or 'easy_install' to do so:

(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ pip install docopt
Downloading/unpacking docopt
  Downloading docopt-0.6.2.tar.gz
  Running setup.py egg_info for package docopt

Installing collected packages: docopt
  Running setup.py install for docopt

Successfully installed docopt
Cleaning up...

Notice where docopt was installed (~/projects/exampleproject/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages):

(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ ls -l local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/docopt*
-rw------- 1 user group 19946 Mar  8 23:12 local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/docopt.py
-rw------- 1 user group 26140 Mar  8 23:12 local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/docopt.pyc

local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/docopt-0.6.2-py2.7.egg-info:
total 40
-rw------- 1 user group     1 Mar  8 23:12 dependency_links.txt
-rw------- 1 user group    86 Mar  8 23:12 installed-files.txt
-rw------- 1 user group 21525 Mar  8 23:12 PKG-INFO
-rw------- 1 user group   651 Mar  8 23:12 SOURCES.txt
-rw------- 1 user group     7 Mar  8 23:12 top_level.txt

Deactivate

To deactivate or stop working on your environment use the function that gets sourced when you activate your environment:

(exampleproject)user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ deactivate
user@computer:~/projects/exampleproject$ 

virtualenvwrapper

virtualenvwrappers goal is to make virtualenv easier to use… sort of like when iTunes automatically organizes your iTunes library.

Basic Usage

Create a virtual environment

This creates the exampleproject folder inside ~/Envs.

user@computer:~/$ mkvirtualenv venv

Work on a virtual environment

'virtualenvwrapper' provides tab-completion on environment names. It really helps when you have a lot of environments and have trouble remembering their names. 'workon' also deactivates whatever environment you are currently in, so you can quickly switch between environments.

user@computer:~/$ workon venv

Deactivating is still the same:

user@computer:~/$ deactivate

To delete:

user@computer:~/$ rmvirtualenv venv

Other useful commands

lsvirtualenv
  List all of the environments.
cdvirtualenv
  Navigate into the directory of the currently activated virtual environment, 
  so you can browse its site-packages, for example.
cdsitepackages
  Like the above, but directly into site-packages directory.
lssitepackages
  Shows contents of site-packages directory.
/var/lib/dokuwiki/data/attic/python/virtual_environments.1425874640.txt.gz · Last modified: 2015/03/08 23:17 by kauffman